Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality without appropriate treatment. Massive bleeding can cause hemodynamic instability, which leads to hemorrhagic shock and even death in some patients with serious conditions
There are numerous causes of acute GIB including infection, vascular anomalies, inflammatory diseases, trauma and malignancy.
The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of GIB depends on its location, severity, and etiology.
Computed tomography angiography is usually enough, rarely nuclear scintigraphy is done localize the source of bleeding and provide essential information for the interventional radiologist to guide therapeutic management.
For patients with abnormal angiography, embolisation is effective therapeutically.
The types of embolisation agents, specifications, and methods of embolisation vary depending on arteriographic manifestations, bleeding locations, causes of disease, blood coagulation state, etc.
Commonly used GI arterial hemorrhage embolic materials include gelatin sponges, PVA particles, coils, etc.